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From Mettur dam the River Cauvery Traverses a distance of 115 miles before reaching Upper anicut in Thiruparaithurai Village limit in Tiruchirappalli District. All along this length it irrigates on both sides.

At upper Anicut the river Cauvery branches off into two arms. On the left side, it is called river Cauvery. A barrage has been constructed on the Coleroon arm in the year 1836. From this point the river Coleroon arm in the year 1836. From this point the river Coleroon serves as a flood carrier and runs almost parallel to the Cauvery arm. In the Cauvery arm, there are number of sluices to cater to the needs of the ayacut.

At Grand Anicut, about 20 miles down the Upper Anicut the surplus water are let into the River Coleroon. During Irrigation season 10% of the realisation at Grand Anicut is let into the River Coleroon to irrigate the ayacut in Chidambaram and Kattumannarkoil Taluks of the South Arcot District and Sirkali Taluk in Thanjavur District. In addition to the 10% realisation at Grand Anicut let into the river Coleroon through its scouring sluices, water drained from the Cauvery ayacut also is received in the River Coleroon and utilised to the development of the ayacut of the Coleroon Anicut System.

At Anaikkarai about 67/2 miles down from Upper Anicut, a regulator has been constructed in the River Coleroon in the year 1836 to serve as a diversion work for the Ayacuts in South Arcot District and Thanajvur District and also as a flood Regulator. Originally it was an anicut, subsequently in the year 1901 shutters of 6 feet height were provided. Then it was increased to 8 feet in the year 1909. Then the shutters were raised to 9 feet in the year 1953. Four Channels namely Vadavar, Coleroon North Rajan, Kanjankollai and Vinayagantheru Channel take off from the left side of Regulator and irrigate an ayacut of 1,01,120 acres in 1st crop and 22,350 Acres in IInd Crop in South Arcot District. Similarly four Channels namely Coleroon South Rajan, Kummukkimanniar, Melaraman and Keelaraman take off from the right side, irrigating an extent of 31,200 acres in Ist crop and 8,424 acres in IInd crop in Thanjavur District.

The Regulator has been designed to discharge 4.50 Lakhs cusecs of floods. The maximum discharge observed was 3,85,751 cusecs in 1924, 1,77,415 cusecs in 1961, 1,51,583 cusecs in 1977, 1,74,594 cusecs in 1989 and 2,27,224 cusecs in 1993.

The Salient Features of the Regulator is as follows:

North Branch Regulator

Sill .. + 46.34 Ft.
Maximum Storage Level .. + 55.34 Ft.
No. of Vents .. 30
Span .. 33' - 4"
Water Way .. 1000 Ft.
Under Sluices .. 8 Nos.
Sill .. + 43.72 Ft.
Maximum Storage Level .. + 53.34 Ft.
Span .. 6' - 0"
Water Way .. 48 Ft.

South Branch Regulator

Sill .. + 46.34 Ft.
Maximum Storage Level .. + 55.34 Ft.
No. of Vents .. 40
Span .. 33' - 4"
Water Way .. 1333 Ft.
Under Sluices .. 8 Nos.
Sill .. + 44.10 Ft.
Maximum Storage Level .. + 55.34 Ft.
Water Way .. 48 Ft.
Surplus Vents .. 2 Nos.
Sill .. + 43.04 Ft.
Maximum Storage Level .. 55.34 Ft.
Water way .. 10 Ft.

All the 70 vents with steel shutters are provided with Screw Gearing arrangements.

Under sluices .. 16 Nos.

Surplus vents .. 2 Nos.


NORTH BRANCH       Discharge
in Cusecs
Vadavar 5 vents " 3 x 17' x 10'
2 x 20' x 10'
Sill + 44.28 2200
North Rajan Channel " 4 x 4' x 5' Sill + 44.84 675
Kanjankollai Channel " 1 x 3' Dia pipe Sill + 50.00 3
Vinyagantheru Channel " 1 x 1' x 6"x1"6" Sill + 50.50 5
South Rajan Channel " 2x8'-0"x7'-0" Sill + 44.37 443
Kumukkimanniar Chl. " 1 x 6'x7'x0" Sill + 44.37 32
Melaraman Channel " 1 x 3' x 3'-0"pipe Sill + 50.64 25



Veeranam Tank is one of the biggest tank in Tamil Nadu. It is situated in the Western side of the Chidambaram, in South Arcot Vallalar District. The main bund for this tank is in the North-South direction and having black-toping road over it for a length of 16 kms. and its connects Sethiathope and Kattumannarkoil and it also has a foreshore bund for a length of 8 kilometres.

This tank is under Lower Coleroon Anicut System and the main source of supply for this tank is Vadavar Channel and this tank receives supply from its own catchment area of 165 sq.mile (or) 427.35 The drainage from the catchment area pass into the tank mainly through two drainage courses namely Sengal Odai and Karuvattu Odai. The maximum inflow of water for the Veeranam Tank is during the monsoon period of North East Monsoon (i.e.), October to December. his tank is having a water spread, area of 15 sq.mile (or) 38.85

The ayacut of the tank is 44856 Acres (i.e.) 18,153 Hectares. There are 34 sluices taking off frm Veeranam Tank for its ayacuts with branch Channels out of this 28 sluices are in the main bund. The main bund sluices are connected by a Channel excavated inside the tank and parallel to the bund called "Thotti Voikkal". The Thotti Voikkal is very useful to operate sluices even when the water level is low.

There are 6 sluices on the foreshore side of the tank called high level sluices. The supply for these sluices are assured only when the tank is having more than 2/3rds of F.T.L.

On the Southern Flank end of the tank just below the entry of Vadavar Channel, there are two sets of 3 surplus weirs with manual operational shutters and also one natural paved bye wash for a length of 490 feet (or) 150 metres.

The total discharge of the surplus arrangements is 21362 cusecs. On the northern side of tank there is a sluice called Veeranam New Supply Sluice (VNSS) through which the Veeranam Tank water is supplied to Sethiathope Anicut, as supplemental supply of Sethiathope Anicut System also there is a surplus escape known as Veeranam north and surplus (VNES) takes off from the Channel carrying Veeranam water to the Vellar river at flood time.

Longitude : 79o - 30' - 70o - 35' (Note : Udayarpalayam Cauvery Basin (Coleroon)

Latitude : 11o - 15' - 11o - 15'

Location : Situated in South Arcot District and 15 miles West of Chidambaram is stretching from Kattumannarkoil to Sethiathope


1.     F.T.L. .. + 45.50 Ft. (13.870m)
2.     M.W.L. (F) .. + 48.00 Ft. (14.630M)
        M.W.L.(R) .. + 47.00 Ft. (14.330m)
3.     T.B.L. .. + 54.00 Ft. (16.450m)
4.     Catchment .. 165 Sq. miles
5.     Capacity at FTL x
        (Original) + 45.50 .. 1923 1441 Mcft.
        As per silt survey .. 1960 1248 Mcft.
        As per silt survey .. 1966 1102 Mcft.
        As per silt survey .. 1972
        As per silt survey .. 1982 930 Mcft.
6.     Water spread at FTL
        (Original) .. 15 Sq. miles
        As per silt survey .. 1965 9.311 Sq. miles
        As per silt survey .. 1972 9.140 Sq. miles
        As per silt survey .. 1982 9.140 Sq.miles
7.     Maximum Width .. 3.5 Miles
8.     Circumference .. 25 Miles
9.     Length of main bund
        M.9 (H.60-F+10 16300m)
        (or) .. 10 miles
10.     Width of Bund .. 18 to 24 Feet
11.     Length of foreshore
        bund .. 5 Miles
12.     Year of construction
        of foreshore bund .. 1913
13.     No. of sluices .. 34 os.
            (28 in tank and 6 in foreshore)
14.     Sill of high level
        sluice'Anaikkal" .. + 39.81
        Sill of high level in
        foreshore "Kudikadu'.. + 41.00
        Sill of Low level
        sluice 'Periyamadagu'.. + 27.69
15.     No. of Fillings
        Area irrigated(Single Crop) .. 44856 Acres
                                        (or) 18,153 Hectares
        Double Crop .. 18000 Acres
        Kullakar .. 1150 Acres
Drainage Draining into Tank

1.         Sengal Odai .. Total Discharge 10000 to 15000 C/s
2.         Karuvattu Odai .. For a period of continuous rainfall of 3 to 4 days.

Surplus Arrangements Lalpet Weirs

     Vents .. 14 Nos.
     Span .. 20'-11"
     Sill .. 40.50
     F.T.L. .. + 45.50
     Height of Opening .. 7' - 3"
     Discharge at MWL .. 17845 C/s
     Height of shutters .. 6'-3"
     Maximum capacity of discharged .. (On 20-10-66 at 6.00 am. to 6.00 pm) 17845 C/s 8596 C/s

Surplus Weir (Right Flank)

     Length .. 490' - 0"
     Discharge at MWL .. 3517 C/s
     Crest of Surplus weir .. + 46.25
Veeranam Project City Water Supply Scheme      Sill of in take tower .. + 30.00
     Numbers of vents .. 6 Nos.
     Sill of vents .. 2 Nos. at + 39.00
          .. 2 Nos. at + 41.00
          .. 2 Nos. at + 43.00
     Sill of RCC Box conduct .. + 32.00



The Sethiathope Anicut is located across the Vellar River in Sethiathope Village about 25 km. from Chidambaram Town in South Arcot District of Tamil Nadu. The river Vellar orginates from Kalrayan Hills in Salem District and traverse for about 192 km. mostly in South Arcot District and empties into Bay of Bengal near Parangipettai.

The Sethiathope Anicut is the last Anicut across the River Vellar and is situated on the Kumbakonam-Madras Highways. This structure was originally constructed as an Anicut in 1847-1848. The bridge over the Anicut was built in 1850-1852. The Anicut had suffered damages due to high floods in the years 1885, 1889, 1913 and those were rectified subsequently.


1 Group   Sethiathope Anicut System
2 Basin   Vellar Basin
3 Ayacut   40,669 Acres
1 Location   Near Kumbakonam-Madras Road,
at 217/3 km. Sethiathope Village
2 Length of Anicut   160.63 m.
3 No. of vents   17 Nos.
4 Size of Vents   9.45 m. x 3.66 m.
5 Sill of Anicut   (+) 10.427 m.
6 Maximum Flood Level   Front (+) 16.032 m
Rear (+) 14.691 m
7 Height of shutters   2.29 m.
8 Catchment Area:    
  Free   6964
  Co-efficient   500
9 Maximum flood discharge   1,20,000 Cusecs
10 Scouring Sluice    
  No. of sluice   4 Nos.
  Size of vent   3.05m x 4.72 m
  Sill   (+) 9.513 m
  Height of shutters   3.05 m.
11 Vellar Rajan Head sluice    
  No. of vent   1 No.
  Size of Vent   7.62m x 2.44m
  Sill   (+) 10.45m
  FSL Front   (+) 12.67
  FSL Rear   (+) 12.42
  Discharge   850 Cusecs



The Wallajah Tank has a catchment area of 191.6 Its original capacity of 2.57 MCM has shrunk to a reported 1.66 MCM due to human encroachment. The tank collects runoff from its catchment during the rainy season, receives year-round inflow from the Neyveli mines and receives surplus from the Vellar Rajan Canal (VRC). The tank supplies an indirect command area of 4,612 ha. through a network of 11 Channels.

Hydraulic Particulars:

Wallajah Tank under Sethiathope Anicut System, is one of the major tank with an ayacut of 11392 acres. The length of its bund is 4.91 km. The original capacity of the tank was about 90.72 M.Cft. (Approx). The water spread area of the tank is 1664 acres. It has got 11 sluices with surplus weirs of length 105.20 m. and 37.8m. The total surplusing capacity of the two surplus weirs are 13525 cusecs (9949 Cusecs + 3575 Cusecs).



The Perumal Tank has a combined catchment of 559.2 and an original capacity of 14.2 MCM. During the years it has silted up in part and its current capacity is estimated at 13.5 MCM. The tank supplies water to an indirect command of 2,632 ha. through 11 Channels. The tank is protected against flooding by two weirs on its southern flank, near the point where the Paravanar River joins it. Through these weirs surplus are discharged into the Lower Paravanar River.

The use of water resources in the Perumal Tank area is summarized as follows:-

    a. The VRC Command receive waters through the Vellar Rajan Canal as releases are made from Veeranam Tank. From September-October the Vellar Rajan Channel receives most of its inflow from the Vellar River and also a small surface runoff from its own command;

    b. The Wallajah Tank and Perumal Commands receive surface runoff from the respective catchments of the two tanks, the Wallajah command receives also ground water pumped from Neyveli mines and surplus water from the Vellar, some of it reaching the Perumal Tank Details of the distribution of inflows within the command area are given in water balance tables in the various operation scenarios. This does note include flood flows from either the Upper Paravanar River or the Vellar that inundate large parts of the Sethiathope Anicut System.

Hydraulic Particulars

Perumal Tank under Sethiathope Anicut System is one of the major tank with an ayacut of 6503 Acres. The Length of its bund is 16.286 km. The Original Capacity of the tank was about 574 Mcft. The water spread area of the tank is 151.60 M.sft. It has got 11 sluices, the sill level of the highest sluice is +12.00 (Andarmullipallam Channel) the sill level of lowest sluice is 6.30 (Omaiyan Channel). It has got two surplus weirs of length 122.75 m. and 91.35m. The total supplying capacity of the two surplus weirs are 24564 cusecs.



Wellington Reservoir is situated in Tittagudi Taluk of Cuddalore District at a distance of 240 Km in the South West of Madras. The Reservoir is located in Vellar Basin across a tributary stream Periya Odai of Vellar River. It receives Regulated Supply diverted from Vellar River at Tholdur Regulator and an additional catchment area of 129 Sq. Km., of its own during NorthEast Mansoon. The Reservoir was constructed during 1913-1923 and irrigates an ayacut of 11,200 Hectare.

The salient feature of the Reservoir and spillway are given below

      The capacity of the Reservoir is : 2580 Mcft.
      The length of bund : 4023 m
      Top level of Bund : + 75.10m
      MWL : + 72.70 m
      FRL : + 72.54
      Spillway crest : + 70.84 m
      Vents : 30 Nos.
                   Manually operated
                   Vertical Lift gates)
      Discharge of surplus Regulator : 384 M3/Sec
      No. of vents of Head Sluices : 3 No.
      Full supply discharges feeder canal : 11.33 M3/Sec
      Sill Level : + 63.47 m
      Depth of Reservoir : 9.07 m

The Reservoir was formed with available earth at site which was not suitable for the formation of Reservoir such formation with non suitable soil leads lot of problems such as slips etc., year by year.

Since, inception of the Reservoir 1923 as the bottom soil of the earthen bund is a slippable clay soil, which causes distress mainly in the reach from Ls. 2000-2300m. The matter was referred to DSRP and as per their recommendations an estimate was prepared for Rs. 275.82 Lakhs for this reach and the Government of TamilNadu accorded sanction in G.O.Ms.No. 168, PWD/Dt. 27.03.2001.

During the course of execution, there was distressing on the top of bund and the distress continued up to 6.00m depth. Hence, the DSRP was requested to inspect the reservoir for remedial measures.

The DSRP and World Bank Mission inspected the reservoir then and there during execution and based on their suggestion, the balance portion approximately 3.50 Km length has been improved on the Down Stream side slope and also brought the top of bund to a same level except the above 300m (Ls. 2000-2300m). For these additional works, the Revised estimate for this work to a value for Rs. 504 Lakhs, has been sanctioned by the Government in G.O.Ms.No.220, PW(t)/Dept./Dt. 26.06.2002.

Accordingly, the work has been completed in 03/2003 and the reservoir has reached its top of bund level +75.10m.

Even after completion of the work, still there are residual distress.

How ever, close watch is being carefully done on every day and there are minor cracks to the distressed portion and noted in the event Register. For further improvements of bund necessary funds have been sought for in WRCP Phase-II